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Obesity and overweight are rising worldwide while underweight rates persist in low-income countries. The data are from , and nationally representative Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys in Addis Ababa. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the strength of associations. Specifically, the prevalence of urban obesity increased by Overall, more than one-third The correlates of underweight were young age and proxies for low socio-economic status i. There is a need for policies to recognize the simultaneous public health problems of under and overnutrition, and for programs to target the distinct populations that suffer from these nutrition problems in this urban area.
Low-income countries have historically been burdened with high levels of undernutrition stunting, wasting and underweight and infectious diseases [ 1 , 2 ]. More than 3. Women who are underweight prior to pregnancy and who gain little weight during pregnancy are at increased risk of complications and death [ 1 , 3 ].
Malnourished mothers are more likely to give birth to low birth-weight babies who face a greatly increased risk of dying in infancy. In Africa, all levels of underweight i. Despite this high prevalence in underweight, low-income countries are also faced with increasing rates of overweight and obesity, particularly in urban areas [ 2 , 6 , 7 ].
The demographic and epidemiological transitions in low income countries have been accompanied by increasing rates of urbanization, overweight and obesity and non-communicable diseases NCD [ 1 — 4 , 8 , 9 ]. Urbanization brings about increased consumption of refined sugars and animal fats, usually coupled with a more sedentary lifestyle; all of these promote obesity [ 10 , 11 ]. Between and , mean body mass index BMI globally increased on average by 0. The growing problem of obesity presents a challenge for public healthcare systems in low- and middle-income countries.
The healthcare systems in these countries traditionally devote its resources to problems of underweight and infectious diseases, but as these countries experience increased economic development and urbanization, they must also learn to manage nutrition-related NCDs [ 20 ].